Using Apology Strategies in Letters by EFL Students at University of Foreign Language Studies – The University of Danang




Apology strategies; direct apology strategies; indirect apology strategies; letters of apology; second-year students.


The act of apologizing in communicative activities is one of the elements of speech acts. Therefore, selecting and using appropriate apology strategies could possibly create effective communication. The article investigates apology strategies used in letters written in English by second-year students at the Faculty of English, University of Foreign Languages, The University of Danang (UFLS-UD). Regarding the aim to identify apology strategies, the frequency of direct and indirect apology strategies, descriptive qualitative methods with the support of quantitative information were employed and based on the data from 282 letters of apology which were collected from 04 EFL classes in the academic school year 2021-2022. The article provides readers with a deep insight into apology strategies and assists EFL learners in understanding and using appropriate apology strategies in specific communicative situations.

Author Biography

Ngo Thi Hien Trang, University of Foreign Language Studies – The University of Danang, Vietnam

NGO Thi Hien Trang has more than 10 years of teaching experience at the Faculty of English, UFLS-UD, Vietnam. She got her MA in 2013 and is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the English Language. Her expertise and interests include language teaching methodology and English linguistics. She has published papers in conference proceedings, WOS, and SCOPUS journals.


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How to Cite

Ngo, T. H. T. (2022). Using Apology Strategies in Letters by EFL Students at University of Foreign Language Studies – The University of Danang. International Journal of Language Instruction, 1(2), 1–12.



Research Article

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